From Celestial Globes To Buttons, Ancient India Used It All!

From Celestial Globes To Buttons, Ancient India Used It All!

The Ancient Indian Civilization has made so many important contributions to the modern world, that they are still unknown to many. The story throws light on some of these innovative inventions in metallurgy and manufacturing processes used in ancient India.

Crux of the Matter

Diamond Cutting And Polishing

Cutting and polishing of diamonds was invented in India as per Ratnapariksha, an ancient science on testing gemstones. As per Kautilya’s Arthashastra, it was used primarily to govern the businesses of pearls, diamonds and other precious gems in ancient times.

Glass Blowing

This tech dates back to 1 BCE, as per in excavations done in Taxila. It was used to make hookahs, chimney shades, perfume bottles, etc.

Etched Carnelian Beads

Ancient decorative beads were made using the technique of alkaline-etching, by the Harappans during the 3rd millennium BCE.

Seamless Celestial Globes

It was developed in India during 1589-1590 CE. Before they were rediscovered in the 1980s, modern metallurgists believed it was impossible to produce metal globes without any joined parts.

Wootz Damascus Steel

Found in Indian subcontinent, Wootz is an ancient ultra-high carbon steel with beautiful patterns, that is naturally formed on the blades during production. Made in 500 BCE to 300 BCE, till date researchers worldwide haven’t been able to recreate it.

Carding Devices

Carding cleans and intermixes fibres (Eg: wool) to produce a continuous web. The earliest evidence for these devices dates to 2nd century CE in India.

Stoneware Pottery

Also known as the predecessor of porcelain, stoneware remnants found at Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) sites, was used to make bangles.


Another marvel from IVC, buttons made from seashell were used as ornaments. Later on, they had holes pierced into them and attached to clothing pieces.


  • The word shampoo is derived from the Hindi word 'Champo'. It means "to press/massage".

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